Automatic solar tracking system

AUTOMATIC SOLAR TRACKER starts following the SUN right from dawn, throughout the day, till evening, and starts all over again from dawn next day. On cloudy weathers, it remains still and catches the SUN again as it slips out of clouds. It does all this automatically, employs cheap and inexpensive components, and is very accurate.Let us see how it does all this.

There are three Electronic Modules to be explained. First one is the HORIZONTAL SENSOR MODULE. It employs the timer 555 in the MONOSTABLE MODE. PIN 2(Trigger Pin of 555) is hooked up with a VOLTAGE DIVIDER NETWORK(PLEASE see FIGURE 2). PIN 4(Reset) is hooked up with ANOTHER VOLTAGE DIVIDER NETWORK.

Fig 1: Block diagram of the tracker following the sun all through
Fig 1: Block diagram of the tracker following the sun all through
Fig 2: Horizontal sensor electronic circuit
Fig 2: Horizontal sensor electronic circuit

The LDR(SAY LDR A) which is always illuminated by light through FRESNEL LENS ARRAY, has Low Resistance(in presence of light resistance of LDR decreases and vice-versa). We know V(OUT)=V(IN)*[R(bottom)]/[R(bottom)+R(top)], where R stands For Resitance. So in SUNLIGHT, when LDR A’s resistance Decreases, VOLTAGE AT PIN 4 Increases. TIMER is no more RESET. PIN 2 is now lower than 1/3 rd Vcc(as the horizontal LDR 1, say LDR B does not initially receive light through its rectangular slit, so its resistance is high(Rtop=8 K ohms), consequently V(OUT) is low). This triggers the timer which gives a pulse to Decade Counter’s Clock(14) PIN and triggers it. The Decade Counter CD 4017 gives a NORMAL STEP DRIVE pulse to the Horizontal Unipolar Stepper Motor 1(coupled to the tracker unit) to rotate the tracker position so as to receive sunlight(STEP ANGLE of 2 DEGREES). This goes on till the horizontal LDR 1 is fully in SUNLIGHT(resistance low, so PIN 2’S VOLTAGE HIGH). Thus the tracker has followed the SUN Horizontally.

Fig 3: Horizontal Sensor electronic circuit
Fig 3: Horizontal Sensor electronic circuit

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We will come to the Vertical Sensor Module, but first let us see what the DAWN LDR(SAY LDR C) does. At night the horizontal Module timer 555 remains Reset(as LDR A is in darkness so its resistance is high, thus pin 4 voltage is low, and the TRACKER points at WEST(where SUN has set). Next day when SUN rises again in the EAST, the DAWN LDR which is located at the back of the TRACKER, points at EAST. So when it receives sunlight its Resistance goes low, thus Voltage at pin 4 is high and the timer triggers the Decade Counter which in turn switches the Motor on, thus the TRACKER again moves towards the EAST. Then the TRACKER functions as previously.

Now placed with the Horizontal Sensor LDR 1 is another similar LDR 2 which receives the sunlight as and when does LDR 1. SEE FIGURE 3. So now, as LDR B(THE 1st horizontal one) receives sunlight, so does Horizontal LDR 2(SEE FIGURE 1, THESE 2 LDRs are placed together with same alignment properties and separated by an optically insulated coating(from each other).Thus when Motor 1 comes to rest, and as the second horizontal LDR (SAY LDR D),is same way coupled to the second timer’s(of Vertical Module) Reset pin as was the ALWAYS ILLUMINATED LDR A, it brings the second timer out of its Reset mode) by the previously discussed VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP). EYE SENSOR LDR(SAY LDR E) of the tracker receives sunlight by an Anti-Reflection Coated, small Rectangular Slit, so reacts only when SUN directly points at it. The second 555’s PIN 2 is same way connected to this LDR as was the first 555’s to Horizontal LDR 1. So now that it still not receives sunlight (resistance high, so Vout low) and pin 4 is no more Reset, the second CD 4017 MAKES THE SECOND STEPPER MOTOR 2 Rotate(Coupled so as to only rotate VERTICAL SENSING BLOCK/EYE BLOCK ). This movement continues till the SUN directly points at the EYE of our TRACKER. Then the TRACKER STOPS, pointing very accurately at the SUN.FIG 2 and FIG 3 follows.

fig 4: Stepper motor control board
fig 4: Stepper motor control board

In figure 4 I have only shown the Horizontal Motor Control Circuit. The Vertical One uses a similar Decade Counter, NPN Transistors, Diodes(to encounter BACK EMF of Power Transistors due to Fast Switching). I chose for a Step Angle of 2 Degrees for the Unipolar Steppers. They are driven in a Normal 4 Step Sequence, first coil A is energised simultaneously with coil B ,then coil C with coil D. Thus the Motors rotate by 2 degrees each time. The Charging Interval(how long pin 3 of 555’s remains high) is almost in synchronism with the steps/second speed of the motors(here 600 steps/sec.), to avoid FALSE TRIGGERING.

NOTE:

  1. For 555 in MONOSTABLE MODE, T=1.1*R*C.
  2. For the FRESNEL LENS ARRAY , the standard FL 40(Focal Length=0.4 inches) Or FL 65(Focal Length=0.65 inches) FRESNEL LENSES could be used (with the Grooves facing the LDRs).
  3. For the ANTI-REFLECTION COATING, MULTI-LAYER COATING could be used to minimize loss due to REFLECTION. By using alternating layers of a Low-Index material like SILICA and a Higher-Index material, it is possible to obtain Reflectivities as low as 0.1% at Single Wavelength.

CONCLUSION:

We Conclude with the ADVANTAGES of the TRACKER MODULE SYSTEM:

  1. Uses SIMPLE, INEXPENSIVE ,EASY TO GET 555 timers and LDRs.
  2. The whole System draws only 25 MicroAmperes of Current when the Motors are not rotating.(555 timer’s off-state current req. is very less).BATTERY POWER IS SAVED.
  3. The TRACKER not only follows SUN from EAST to WEST and back to EAST in a cyclic manner(Horizontal Motor Module),but also tracks the Angular Movement of the SUN with respect to its ZENITH ANGLE to the Horizon(Vertical Motor Module and EYE).This is a VERSATILE quality for which the TRACKER could easily be used in conjunction with Solar Panels to derive maximum Solar Energy. Fast Motor Response(600 steps/sec.),no FALSE TRIGGERING, a Very ACCURATE System, it requires no Programming Devices(MICROPROCESSORS or MICROCONTROLLERS), so is NOT COMPLICATED.

118 Responses to “Automatic solar tracking system”

  1. i am student of be(ee). i will be interested in this project so i have required some data and i will be include in this project t rotate north to south in diff. session plz help me and send diagram and other data in my id

    Reply
  2. hi sir,
    i m doing my last year project on dis topic
    but the model is not properly working…………
    plz give some more details……

    Reply
  3. vasantha

    hello sir,
    we r doing project on SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM WITH STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL USING 89C51.SO I need the information of how the stepper motor s rotating with pv panals with diagrams and also i need the flowchart and program of 89c51 pls do reply as soon as possible……

    Reply
  4. Respected sir,
    I am student of final year ECE, my project is on implementation of solar tracking system using FPGA. Please do guide me for this project….

    Reply
  5. anji routhu

    sir pls send detailed info of this project i’m very interested in it

    Reply
  6. This circuit diagrams is designed is totally wrong. I would like to see anybody who will run any engine with this step diagrams. Also this diagrams is not designed in acordance with IEC.
    First: No 555 in monostabile can not work properly generating a signal on PIN third
    Second: NE 555 has to work in Astable work properly for generating a signal on PIN third
    Third: There is no signal for changing the motor directions. IC 4017 does not suport the engine option for changing directions.
    Conclusion: This diagrams should be moved from this site and people should not waste time on something that is wrong

    Reply
  7. pls my project is on this topic pls can u send me full details on it

    Reply
  8. Sir,
    My recent project topic is solar tracking. Please send me a project details or project report.
    I am trying to control the panel by a servo motor, if you help me on this topic I will be very glad.
    I am looking forward to you.

    Reply
  9. mohinesh monish sharma

    i want to do a final year project on this and hoping that if you could send me some information and circuit digrams on automatic solar tracker

    Reply
  10. I need all de information required to do project on dis pls send me as soon as possible

    Reply
  11. can you give me all information about project of solar tracking system?

    Reply
  12. ashwini ajankar

    hi i am ashwini ajankar ,final year student ,i like ur project topic.i want to do work on this topic can u plz send me a detail information so i can work on it
    thankkkks

    Reply
  13. nagendra

    u r project is excelent sir…….pls send me a valueble details of this project sir.
    thank you sir
    bye

    Reply
  14. I Need all de infor of solar tracking system using stepper motor or dc motor sir………..?

    Reply

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