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How Semiconductors Changed the World We Live In?

In 1949, a German Engineer and Physicist, Werner Jacobi, came up with the idea of an integrated transistor amplifier. In 1952, a British Radio Engineer, Geoffrey Drummer, got the novel idea that many standard electronics components could be put together in a semiconductor crystal. Finally, in 1953, Harwick Johnson patented the integrated circuit. The Integrated […]



Embed means hidden, Similar word: Small Glass planes are embedded over the compound walls. But coming to electronics, this is a electronic system which is hidden inside a device ,whose identity is not shown to the outside world,and involve in a particular single application. May be from remote controller to spaceship. Everywhere we see embedded, […]

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Stepper Motor Chopping Driver

Chopper drive circuits Chopper drive circuits are also referred to as constant current drives because they generate a somewhat constant current in each winding rather than applying a constant voltage. On each new step, a very high voltage is applied to the winding initially. This causes the current in the winding to rise quickly since […]

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Circuit Troubleshooting

Short notes about Circuit troubleshooting. – Check the circuit for mechanical failures, like disconnected wire, broken vias on the board, and connections between two adjacent vias which are not to be connected. – You should compare values of components and their connections with values and connections between components on the schematic. – Measuring DC voltages […]


Interfacing 7-segment display using 7447 decoder

The Light Emitting Diode (LED), finds its place in many applications in this modern electronic fields. One of them is the Seven Segment Display. Seven-segment displays contains the arrangement of the LEDs in “Eight” (8) passion, and a Dot (.) with a common electrode, lead (Anode or Cathode). The purpose of arranging it in that […]


Heavy electrical device protector

Applications: In monitoring & controlling of power systems such as Transformers, Generators, Motors etc. To analyze the performance of electrical machines. Can be used as a safety device to protect machines from over loading, excessive voltage etc. To make the power distribution system efficient. Recording device/Line parameters. Introduction This unit is used to protect heavy […]


System for Mobile communications (GSM)

GSM – AN OVERVIEW GSM, Global System for Mobile communications, is today the most successful digital mobile telecommunication system. This second-generation (2G) system provides voice and limited data services and uses digital modulation with improved audio quality. The different versions of GSM are: GSM 900 band (850-915MHz up-link frequency and 935-960MHz downlink frequency) GSM 1800 […]


Global Positioning System (GPS)

GPS – AN OVERVIEW The GPS (Global Positioning System) is a “constellation” of 24 well-spaced satellites that orbit the earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location. The location accuracy is anywhere from 100 to 10 meters for most equipment. Accuracy can be pinpointed to within 1 meter […]



The RF section consists of an RF transmitter and an RF receiver.  The RF transmitter mainly consists of a remote key that contains a code hopping encoder, HCS301 along with 2 buttons and two LEDs. The RF receiver section consists of a Low Power ASK receiver IC. The key encoder will generate the company specific […]


PIC – Introduction

The term PIC, or Peripheral Interface Controller, has been coined by Microchip technology to identify its single chip microcontrollers. PIC microcontrollers possess an array of features that make them attractive for a wide range of applications. Furthermore these microcontrollers are available with a range of capabilities, packaged in both dual-in-line(DIP) packages and surface-mount packages. Factors […]